Elbuken Research Group

Cover_122) Z. Isiksacan et. al. 2016 
Cover_314) O. Cakmak et. al. 2013
Cover_210) T. Glawdel et. al. 2011

 

  • 26) M. Asghari, M. Serhatlioglu, B. Ortaç, M. E. Solmaz and C. Elbuken, “Sheathless Microflow Cytometry Using Viscoelastic Fluids,” Scientific Reports, v. 7, 12342, Sep 2017 [link]. DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.08.061 [pdf]

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      Presents a microflow cytometer based on viscoelastic focusing for 3D single-line focusing of microparticles. The presented system is composed of a single capillary to accommodate the fluid and optical fibers to couple the light to the fluid of interest. The rheological properties three viscoelastic solutions were studied and their focusing performance was compared both numerically and experimentally. The sheathless microflow cytometer was shown to present 780 particles/s throughput and 5.8% CV for the forward scatter signal for hyaluronic acid-based focusing.

      Fig. 7. Comparison of the reported cytometers reported in the literature based on the focusing method (see Supplementary Table S4). The CV values reported for these values are from either forward scatter (FSC), side scatter (SSC) or fluorescence (FL) measurements (details are given in supplementary document). If multiple values were reported in the same study, the lower CV value (i.e. best performance) was reflected in the chart. For some studies, experiments were performed with differing size of particles, which is also reflected in the chart. The HA based sheathless microflow cytometer presented in this study yields a CV value of 5.8% for FSC measurement.

    25) M. T. Guler, P. Beyazkilic and C. Elbuken, “A versatile plug microvalve for microfluidic applications,” Sens. Actuators A, v. 265, p. 224–230, Oct 2017 [link]. DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2017.09.001 [pdf]

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      Demonstrates a very low-cost and practical microvalve which is inspired from macroplug valves. The valve is simply fabricated by boring a hole through a rigid cylindrical rod and inserting it through a microfluidic chip. The valve is adaptable to both elastomeric (PDMS) or rigid (PMMA, PC) channels.

      Fig. 2. Fabrication steps: (a) Drilling a hole through the PLA rod, (inset) close-up images of rods with 600 um (top) and 200 um (bottom) diameter holes. (b) Bending the tip of the hole for ease-of-handling using a hot air gun set at 200 ◦C for a few seconds. (c) Punching of the through hole for the placement of the rod. The location of the valve is determined at this step and shows the versatility of the plug microvalve. (d) Insertion of the rod to the hole on a flat surface.

    24) Z. Isiksacan, M. Asghari and C. Elbuken, “A microfluidic erythrocyte sedimentation rate analyzer using rouleaux formation kinetics,” Microfluid Nanofluid, 21:44, Feb 2017 [link]. DOI: 10.1007/s10404-017-1878-7 [pdf]

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      Investigates red blood cell aggregation induced by addition of dextran polyglucose. Demonstrates a system which can be used as a point-of-care unit for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate from both venous and fingerprick capillary blood.

      Fig. 6 Visual observation of red blood cells just after the pinch valves stopped operating. a PV-1 was employed, and cells were disaggregated. b PV-2 was employed, and disaggregation was not achieved

    23) H. Guner, E. Ozgur, G. Kokturk, M. Celik, E. Esen, A. E. Topal, S. Ayas, Y. Uludag, C. Elbuken and A. Dana, “A smartphone based surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) platform for on-site biodetection,” Sens. Actuators B, v. 239, p. 571–577, Feb 2017 [link]. DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.08.061 [pdf]

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      Demonstrates a surface plasmon resonance imaging platform integrated with a  smartphone to be used as a point-of-site device with high-throughput. Very low cost flow cells were manufactured using Blu-ray discs. Real-time bulk refractive index change measurements yield noise equivalent refractive index changes  comparable with the performance of commercial instruments.

      Fig. 1. Surface plasmon resonance imaging platform integrated with a smartphone. (a) Schematic illustration and (b) photograph of the imaging apparatus. (c) Custom developed smartphone application for real-time and on-site monitoring of multiple sensing spots.

    22) Z. Isiksacan, O. Erel and C. Elbuken, “A portable microfluidic system for rapid measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate,” Lab Chip, v. 24, p. 4682–4690, Nov 2016 (cover article) [link]. DOI: 10.1039/c6lc01036a [pdf]
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      Shows rapid measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) using rrythrocyte aggregation using a portable point-of-care microfluidic opto-electro-mechanical analyzer. Only 40 μl of whole blood is required for single use polycarbonate cartridge and the measurement is completed in 2 minutes.

      Fig. 1 The microfluidic system for ultrafast ESR measurement and EA monitoring. (a) Schematic representation of the system and the method. A pinch valve disaggregates erythrocytes in whole blood, and a photodetector collects optically transmitted light for ESR measurement. An optical microscope and a camera set-up allow real-time monitoring of the aggregation process. (b) The hand-held and portable microfluidic system developed for ESR measurement at the point-of-care.

    21) M. Kanik, M. Marcali, M. Yunusa, C. Elbuken and M. Bayindir, “Continuous Triboelectric Power Harvesting and Biochemical Sensing Inside Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Hollow Fibers Using Microfluidic Droplet Generation,” Adv. Mater. Technol., 1600190, Nov 2016 [link] DOI:10.1002/admt.201600190 [pdf]
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      Triboelectric power harvesting and biochemical sensing inside poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fibers. Fiber-based microfluidic energy harvesting system, which is also utilized as self-powered chemical and biosensor. In vitro device concept demonstrating that triboelectric effect can be used for cell detection.

      Figure 3. Experimental setup and signal characterization. A) Setup for signal measurement from the generated droplet in microfluidic chip. The chip has water and air inlet connected to a pressure pump. On the other end is the droplet outlet integrated with PVDF hollow fiber. Size tunable droplets were formed in the channel by tuning the air and water pressure line. B) Correlation between power and droplet volume. The power is linearly dependent on the droplet volume.

    20) M. Serhatlioglu, B. Ortac, C. Elbuken, N. Biyikli and M. E. Solmaz, “CO2 laser polishing of microfluidic channels fabricated by femtosecond laser assisted carving,” J. Micromech. Microeng., v. 26, p. 115011, Oct 2016 [link] DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/26/11/115011 [pdf]
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      Although femtosecond laser is enables fabrication of glass microchannels, the surface properties are not favorable especially with channels obtained with low repetition rates. This paper introduces CO2 laser polishing which significantly improves the surface roughness which was demonstrated by detailed characterizations using SEM and AFM measurements.

      Figure 5. (a) A digital camera photo; (b) 20 × microscope images of unpolished; (c) polished microfluidic channels in fused silica test chip.

    19) P. Beyazkilic, U. Tuvshindorj, A. Yildirim, C. Elbuken and M. Bayindir, “Robust superhydrophilic patterning of superhydrophobic ormosil surfaces for high throughput on-chip screening applications,” RSC Advances, v. 6, p. 80049-80054, Aug 2016 [link]. DOI:  10.1039/c6ra19669a. [pdf]
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      Presents a facile method for the preparation of  patterned superhydrophobic hybrid coatings with controlled wettability. Superhydrophobic coatings were deposited from nanostructured organically modified silica (ormosil) colloids that were synthesized via a simple sol–gel method. Stable wetted micropatterns were produced using Ultraviolet/Ozone (UV/O) treatment which modifies the surface chemistry from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

      Fig. 3 (a) Schematic representation of UV/O treatment on superhydrophobic ormosil surfaces (left) and chemical groups on the treated and untreated areas (right). (b) Patterned ormosil surface with completely spreading FITC–BSA solution on the superhydrophilic area and spherical water droplet sitting on the superhydrophobic area. Corresponding schemes indicate the complete wetting and Cassie state non-wetting on the treated and untreated areas, respectively

    18) M. Marcali and C. Elbuken, “Impedimetric detection and lumped element modelling of a hemagglutination assay in microdroplets,” Lab Chip, v. 16, pp. 2494-2503, May 2016 [link]. DOI: 10.1039/c6lc00623j [pdf]
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      Presents modelling and experimental verification of impedimetric detection of hemagglutination inside microdroplets. Agglutinated red blood cells in microdroplets were detected for screening of whole blood samples for multiple antibody sera. We were able to form antibody and whole blood microdroplets in PDMS microchannels without any tedious chemical surface treatment. The presented approach is of interest for label-free, quantitative analysis of droplets.

      Schematic drawing of the system and time-lapse optical micrographs of sample side injection into the droplets. (a) At the first T-junction, an antibody (Anti-A) droplet is generated. (b–d) The droplet is merged with a blood sample (A Rh+). (e and f) The droplet is transferred to the mixing region. (g and h) Mixing of the antibody solution with the blood sample to enhance hemagglutination. (i) After agglutination, clumped red blood cells are located at the trailing edge of the droplet.

    17) Z. Isiksacan, M. T. Guler, B. Aydogdu, I. Bilican and C. Elbuken, “Rapid fabrication of microfluidic PDMS devices from reusable PDMS molds using laser ablation,”  J. Micromech. Microeng., v. 26, p. 035008, Feb 2016 [link], selected for the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) Highlights of 2016. DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/26/3/035008 [pdf
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      Shows a novel, facile, and low-cost method for rapid fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds and devices using a CO2 laser cutter to pattern thin, spin-coated PDMS layers. Then reusable PDMS molds were replicated using PDMS/PDMS casting. Finally, a second casting step is used to replicate PDMS devices from the male mold. The whole process, from idea to device testing, can be completed in 1.5 h in a standard laboratory without requiring a cleanroom.

      Figure 5. SEM images of the selected regions of the fabricated FM, MM, and chip. The first, second, and third rows give the images of the straight, round and diagonal cut regions, respectively. The left, middle, and right columns are the images of the FM, MM, and chip, respectively. The SEM images of the MM (a2, b2, c2) are mirrored for ease of comparison.

    16) M. T. Guler, I. Bilican, S. Agan and C. Elbuken, “A simple approach for the fabrication of 3D microelectrodes for impedimetric sensing,”  J. Micromech. Microeng., v. 25, p. 095019, Aug 2015 [link], selected for the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) Highlights of 2015. DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/25/9/095019 [pdf]
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      Presents a very simple method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) microelectrodes integrated with microfluidic devices. We form the electrodes by etching a microwire placed across a microchannel. For precise control of the electrode spacing, we employ a hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device and control the width of the etching solution stream. The focused widths of the etchant solution and the etching time determine the gap formed between the electrodes. We have demonstrated the functionality of these electrodes using an impedimetric particle counting setup to detect red blood cells.

      Figure 1. Chip fabrication steps: (a) a cleaned glass slide, (b) attaching the double-sided tapes, (c) stretching the gold microwire between the tapes, (d) bonding the PDMS microchannel onto the glass slide, (e) placing the silver paste onto the tapes, (f) covering the silver paste with aluminum foil, (g) a picture of the fabricated device.

    15) P. K. Isgor, M. Marcali, M. Keser and C. Elbuken, “Microfluidic droplet content detection using integrated capacitive sensors,”  Sens. Actuators B, v. 210, p. 669-675, Jan 2015 [link] DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2015.01.018 [pdf]
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      In this study, we developed a scalable, portable, robust and  high sensitivity capacitive microdroplet content detection system using coplanar electrodes with nanometer thick silicon dioxide (SiO2) passivation layer and off-the-shelf capacitive sensors. The dielectric content of droplets was modified continuously while corresponding capacitance signal was measured. The resolution of the system was measured as 3 dielectric permittivity units. Automated and precise measurement of dielectric content in droplets for biochemical assay monitoring is a major application of the presented system.

      Fig. 2. Photograph of the fabricated microfluidic device. Channels were filled with dye solutions for clarity.

    14) O. Cakmak, C. Elbuken, E. Ermek,  A. Mostafazadeh,  I. Baris,  B. E. Alaca,  I.H. Kavakli and H. Urey, “Microcantilever based blood plasma viscosity sensor,”  Elsevier Methods, v. 63, issue 3, p. 225-232, Oct. 2013 (cover article)  [link]  DOI:10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.07.009 [pdf]
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      Demonstrates a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor made of electroplated nickel. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader’s theory and agreed reasonably well. Viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23 °C and 37 °C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured.

      Fig. 3. Schematic of measurement principle and setup. Actuation of nickel cantilevers is achieved with an external coil. Optical interferometric read-out can be utilized with diffraction gratings at the tip of each cantilever. The closed-loop system with phase-lock loop (PLL) circuit enables resonance frequency tracking.

    13)  T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken and  C. L. Ren, “Droplet formation in microfluidics T-junction generators operating in the transitional regime. II – Modelling,” Phy. Review E, v. 85, issue 1, p. 016323, Jan. 2012 [link] DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016323 [pdf]

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      This is the second part of a two-part study on the generation of droplets at a microfluidic T-junction operating in the transition regime. In the preceding paper [Phys. Rev. E 85, 016322 (2012)], we presented our experimental observations of droplet formation and decomposed the process into three sequential stages defined as the lag, filling, and necking stages. Here we develop a model that describes the performance of microfluidic T-junction generators working in the squeezing to transition regimes where confinement of the droplet dominates the formation process. The model incorporates a detailed geometric description of the drop shape during the formation process combined with a force balance and necking criteria to define the droplet size, production rate, and spacing. The model inherently captures the influence of the intersection geometry, including the channel width ratio and height-to-width ratio, capillary number, and flow ratio, on the performance of the generator. The model is validated by comparing it to speed videos of the formation process for several T-junction geometries across a range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios.

      FIG. 2. Geometric reconstruction of the droplet shape as it is being formed in the transition regime

     12) T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken and  C. L. Ren, “Droplet formation in microfluidics T-junction generators operating in the transitional regime. I – Experimental observations,” Phy. Review E, v. 85, issue 1, p. 016322, Jan. 2012 [link]  DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016322 [pdf]
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      This is the first part of a two-part study on the generation of droplets at a microfluidic T-junction operating in the transition regime where confinement of the droplet creates a large squeezing pressure that influences droplet formation. This paper presents our experimental observations through the analysis of high-speed videos of the droplet formation process.

      FIG. 1. Droplet formation cycle in the T-junction generator consisting of three stages: the filling period, squeezing or necking period, and pinchoff. Images are actual traces of the interface with intersection geometry (wd :wc) 1:2 and channel height 50 μm, under flow conditions of Ca = 0.0087 and ϕ = 0.475.

    11)  C.  Elbuken, T. Glawdel, D. Chan, and  C. L. Ren, “Detection of microdroplet size and speed using capacitive sensors,”  Sens. Actuators A, v. 171, issue 2, pp. 55-62, Nov. 2011 [link]  DOI:10.1016/j.sna.2011.07.007 [pdf]
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      Shows detection of the presence, size and speed of microdroplets using commercially available capacitive sensors which make the droplet based microfluidic systems scalable and inexpensive.  A single pair of electrodes is used to detect the presence of a droplet and the interdigital finger design is used to detect the size and speed of the droplet. An analytical model is developed to predict the detection signal and guide the experimental optimization of the sensor geometry. The measured droplet information is displayed through a Labview interface in real-time.

      Fig. 1. Schematic of the microfluidic chip with T-junction droplet generator and coplanar electrodes placed beneath the microchannel forming the capacitive sensors. A single channel passes over several electrode designs with different electrode gaps and widths.

    10) T.  Glawdel, C. Elbuken and C. L. Ren, “Passive droplet trafficking at microfluidic junctions under geometric and flow asymmetries,” Lab Chip, v. 11, pp 3774-3784, Sep. 2011 (cover article) [link]  DOI: 10.1039/C1LC20628A [pdf]
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      When droplets enter a junction they sort to the channel with the highest flow rate at that instant.Transport is regulated by a discrete time-delayed feedback that results in a highly periodic behavior where specific patterns can continue to cycle indefinitely. Between these highly ordered regimes are chaotic structures where no pattern is evident. Here we develop a model that describes droplet sorting under various asymmetries: branch geometry (length, cross-section), droplet resistance and pressures. First, a model is developed based on the continuum assumption and then, with the assistance of numerical simulations, a discrete model is derived to predict the length and composition of the sorting pattern. Furthermore we derive all unique sequences that are possible for a given distribution and develop a preliminary estimation of why chaotic regimes form. The model is validated by comparing it to numerical simulations and results from microfluidic experiments in PDMS chips with good agreement.

      Fig. 1 Schematic of the junction where droplet sorting occurs with all relevant variables identified. Asymmetry may exist in the branch lengths, cross-sections, droplet resistances and applied pressures.

    9) M. Shameli, C. Elbuken, J. Ou, C. L. Ren and J. Pawliszyn. “Fully integrated PDMS/SU-8/quartz microfluidic chip with a novel macroporous poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane for isoelectric focusing of proteins using whole-channel imaging detection,” Electrophoresis, v. 32, pp 333-339, Feb. 2011 [link]  DOI 10.1002/elps.201000643 [pdf]
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      A fully integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/modified PDMS membrane/SU-8/ quartz hybrid chip was developed for protein separation using isoelectric focusing (IEF) mechanism coupled with whole-channel imaging detection (WCID) method. This study has addressed all the challenges and presented a fully integrated chip, which is more robust with higher sensitivity than the previously developed IEF chips. This chip was tested by performing protein and pI marker separation. The separation results obtained in this chip were compared with that obtained in commercial cartridges.

      Figure 1. (A) Quartz substrate with SU-8 channel walls, (B) PDMS substrate with membranes, (C) assembly of
      chips

     8) B. Y. Yu, C. Elbuken, C. L. Ren and J. P. Huissoon, “Image processing and classification algorithm for yeast cell morphology in a microfluidic chip,”  J. of Biomedical Optics, v. 16(6), 066008, June 2011 (selected for Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research) [link]  DOI:10.1117/1.3589100 [pdf]
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      A computer-based image processing algorithm is designed to automatically classify microscopic images of yeast cells in a microfluidic channel environment. The results suggest it is possible to automatically classify yeast cells based on their morphological characteristics with noisy and low-contrast images.

      Fig. 5 E. coli class distributions in different features spaces.

     7) T.  Glawdel, C. Elbuken, C. L. Ren and L. E. J. Lee. “Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1) – towards water toxicity testing,” Lab Chip, v. 9, pp. 3243-3250, Sep 2009 [link]  DOI: 10.1039/B911412M [pdf]
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      Presents a microfluidic system that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill) to perform toxicity testing on fish cells seeded in the system. The system consists of three mechanical components: (1) a toxicity testing chip containing a microfluidic gradient generator which creates a linear concentration distribution of toxicant in a cell test chamber, (2) an electroosmotic (EO) pump chip that controls the flow rate and operation of the toxicity chip, and (3) indirect reservoirs that connect the two chips allowing for the toxicant solution to be pumped separately from the electroosmotic pump solution.

      Fig. 2 Three EO pumps fabricated with photopolymerized gel membranes are connected by indirect reservoirs to the toxicity chip which contains a microfluidic gradient generator and test cell chamber. A linear gradient of toxicant is created in the cell chamber and a Live/DeadTM cell assay is used to determine the lethality.

    6) C. Elbuken, M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. “Design and implementation of a micromanipulation system using a magnetically levitated microgripper,” IEEE Tran. Mechatronics, v. 14, no. 4, pp. 434-445, Aug 2009 [link]  DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2009.2023648 [pdf]
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      Shows magnetic levitation of microrobots as a new technology for micromanipulation tasks. The microrobots were fabricated based on microelectromechanical systems technology and weigh less than 1 g. The robots can be positioned in 3-D using magnetic field. It is shown that microrobots can be produced using commercially available magnets or electrodeposited magnetic films. A photothermal microgripper is integrated to the microrobots to perform micromanipulation operations. Micromanipulation experiments such as pick-and-place, pushing, and pulling were demonstrated using objects with 100 µm and 1 mm diameter.

      Fig 2. Photograph of the magnetic levitation system with a closeup view to the working domain.

    5) C. Elbuken, N. Topaloglu, P. M. Nieva, M. Yavuz and J. P. Huissoon. “Modeling and analysis of a novel 2-DOF bidirectional electro-thermal microactuator,” Microsystem Technologies, v. 15, no. 5, pp. 713-722, May 2009 [link]  DOI:10.1117/12.776594 [pdf]
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      Four hot-arm U-shape electro-thermal actuator was developed for bidirectional motion in two axes. By selectively applying voltage to different pairs of its four arms, the device can provide actuation in four directions starting from its rest position. The device was fabricated using PolyMUMPs and experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Total in-plane deflections of 4.8 μm (2.4 μm in either direction) and upward out-of-plane deflections of 8.2 μm were achieved at 8 V of input voltage.

      Figure 1. SEM micrograph of the four arm microactuator. The inset shows the magnified view of the tip with the Vernier scale.

    4)  C. Elbuken, L. Gui, C. L. Ren, M. Yavuz and M. B. Khamesee. “Design and analysis of a polymeric photo-thermal actuator,” Sens. Actuators A, v. 147, pp. 292-299, July 2008 [link]  DOI:10.1016/j.sna.2008.04.019 [pdf]
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      Presents the modeling, simulation and characterization of a photo-thermally actuated SU-8 bent-beam microactuator. The principle of operation is based on the thermal expansion of the bent-beams that absorb the required heat by laser illumination. This provides an effective non-contact actuation mechanism by laser beam focusing.  This polymeric microgripper with photo-thermal actuation provides a way of gentle grasping with electrical isolation, high repeatability and low temperature operation that is particularly crucial for biomanipulation applications.

      Fig. 13. Optical images of the SU-8 microgripper: (a) fingers are closed with 20 m gap, (b) fingers are opened with 50 m gap when laser is illuminated.

    3) C. Elbuken, M. Yavuz and M. B. Khamesee. “Development of crystalline magnetic thin films for microlevitation,” AIP J. of Applied Physics 104, 044905, Aug 2008  (selected for Sep 2008 issue of Virtual J. Nanoscale Science & Technology) [link] DOI: 10.1063/1.2969832 [pdf]
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      Producing inexpensive microfabricated magnetic films is of high importance to all magnetically levitated microdevices. This paper introduces a microlevitation system and presents the fabrication of Co–Ni–Mn–P films using electrodeposition. The magnetic properties of the films such as coercivity, remanence, and maximum energy product demonstrate that hexagonal structure promotes out-of-plane magnetization whereas cubic structure reinforces in-plane magnetization.

      FIG. 2. XRD pattern of the film with low Ni content. hcp diffraction peaks

    2)  C. Elbuken, E. Shameli and M. B. Khamesee. “Modeling and analysis of eddy current damping for high precision magnetic levitation of a small magnet,” IEEE Tran. on Magnetics, v. 43, no. 1, pp. 26-32, Jan 2007 [link]  DOI:10.1109/TMAG.2006.885859 [pdf]
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      Presents modeling and analysis of eddy-current damping formed by a conductive plate placed below the levitating object in order to suppress vibrations and ensure stability. It is demonstrated that vibrations should be damped to preserve stability and precision especially for stepwise motion. Eddy-current damping is a key technique that improves levitation performance to increase the diversity of applications of magnetic levitation systems in micromanipulation and microelectronic fabrication.

      Fig. 6. Eddy forces formed by the permanent magnet and electromagnets. The plate is located at z = 0.1 m

     1)  C. Elbuken, M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. “Eddy current damping for magnetic levitation: Downscaling from macro to micro levitation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., v. 39, pp 3932-3938, Sep 2006 [link] DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/39/18/002 [pdf]
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      Magnetic levitation of miniaturized objects is investigated in this paper. A magnetic levitation setup is built to implement one-dimensional magnetic levitation motion. Experimentally, it is shown that eddy current damping can reduce the RMS positioning error to the level of more than one third of its original value for a 0.386 g object levitated in an air-gap region of 290 mm. The proposed system has the potential to be used for micro-manipulation purposes in a high motion range of 39.8 mm.

      Figure 1. Schematic of magnetic levitation system

  • Z. Isiksacan, O. Erel and C. Elbuken, “A handheld microfluidic device for whole blood coagulation measurement using erythrocyte aggregation,” 21st International Conf. on Miniaturized Systems, MicroTAS 2017, Savannah, USA, 22 – 26 October 2017.

    A. Kalantarifard, A. Saateh, P. Beyazkilic and C. Elbuken, “Reaction kinetic studies by compliance induced ultra monodisperse droplets,” 21st International Conf. on Miniaturized Systems, MicroTAS 2017, Savannah, USA, 22 – 26 October 2017.

    Z. Altintas, C. Elbuken and Y. Uludag, “A fully automated microfluidic-based electrochemical sensor for real-time pathogen detection,” European Advanced Materials Congress, EAMC 2017, Stockholm, Sweden, 22-24 August 2017.

    M. Asghari, M. Serhatlioglu and C. Elbuken, “Analysis of Inertial Migration of Particles in Helical Channels using Particle Tracking,” Microfluidics, Physics & Chemistry of Gordon Research Conference, GRC 2017, Lucca (Barga), Italy, 4 – 9 June 2017.

    P. K. Isgor, D. Moschou and C. Elbuken, “Electrical detection and manipulation of microdroplets on a portable and low-cost microfluidic platform,” 5th International Conf. on Bio-Sensing Technology, Riva Del Garda, Italy, 7 – 10 May 2017.

    M. Serhatlioglu, C. Elbuken, B. Ortac and M. E Solmaz, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of fiber based optofluidic platform for flow cytometry applications,” Proc. of SPIE Vol. 10058 100580I-8, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII, 28 February 2017.

    Z. Isiksacan and C. Elbuken, “Microfluidic measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and monitoring of erythrocyte aggregation,” 20th International Conf. on Miniaturized Systems, MicroTAS 2016, Dublin, Ireland, 9 – 13 October 2016.

    Z. Isiksacan and C. Elbuken, “Point-of-care measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate,” 3rd International Congress on Biosensors, Ankara, Turkey, 5 – 7 October 2016.

    A. Kalantarifard and C. Elbuken, “Highly monodispersed droplet generation using a microfluidic system,” 3rd International Congress on Biosensors, Ankara, Turkey, 5 – 7 October 2016.

    Caglar Elbuken, “Microfluidics for healthcare applications” Workshop on Electrochemical nucleic acid based biosensors/microfluidic devices for healthcare applications, Bath UK, 7 September 2016.

    Z. Isiksacan and C. Elbuken, “Ultra fast microfluidic measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate,” Microfluidics 2016, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany, 24 – 26 July 2016.

    M. Serhatlioglu, B. Ortac, C. Elbuken, N. Biyikli and M.E. Solmaz, “CO2 polishing of femtosecond laser micromachined microfluidic channels,”CLEO: Science and Innovations 2016, 5-10 June 2016.

    Z. Isiksacan and C. Elbuken, “A point-of-care device for fast erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurement,” International Conference of Microfluidics, Nanofluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip, Dalian, China, 10-12 June 2016.

    Z. Isiksacan and C. Elbuken, “Development of an optomechanical point-of-care device for erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurement,” Biosensors 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May, 2016.

    B. Garipcan, O. Oztürk,F. Z. Erkoc, M. Marcali, C. Elbuken and R. Rasier, “Development of artificial corneal endothelium microenvironment by biomimetic and bioinspired approaches,” Bio-inspired Materials 2016, Potsdam, Germany, 22 – 25 February 2016.

    M.T. Guler, I. Bilican, Z. Isiksacan, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “An in situ fabrication technique to form integrated microelectrodes,” 19th International Conf. on Miniaturized Systems, MicroTAS 2015, Gyeongju, Korea, 25 – 29 October 2015.

    M. Marcali, C. Elbuken, “Automated detection of blood type inside microfluidic droplets”, 2nd International Congress on Biosensors, Izmir, Turkey, 10-12 June 2015

    P. K. Isgor, C. Elbuken, “On-PCB droplet detection and sorting”, 2nd International Congress on Biosensors, Izmir, Turkey, 10-12 June 2015 (poster)

    Z. Isiksacan, M. T. Guler, B. Aydogdu, I. Bilican, C. Elbuken, “A novel rapid prototyping method for PDMS-based microfluidic platforms”,  2nd International Congress on Biosensors, Izmir, Turkey, 10-12 June 2015 (poster)

    M.T Guler, I. Bilican, M. Yuksel, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Electrical detection of single bacterium from drinking water”, 2nd International Congress on Biosensors, Izmir, Turkey, 10-12 June 2015 (poster)

    I. Bilican, M.T Guler, M. Yuksel, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Electrical detection of red blood cells on a microfluidic device”, 2nd International Congress on Biosensors, Izmir, Turkey, 10-12 June 2015 (poster)

    M.Marcali, C.Elbuken, “Impedimetric detection of agglutination reaction inside microfluidic droplets”, Microfluidics, Physics and Chemistry of Microscale Technology for Advancing and Translating Discovery, Mount Snow, VT, USA, 31 May-5 June 2015 (poster)

    I. Bilican, M.T. Guler, M. Yuksel, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Solvent sensing from capacitance based on interdigitated microelectrodes” OEMT 2015, 1st International Conference on Organic Electronic Material Technologies, Elazig, Turkey, 25-28 March 2015

     M.T. Guler, I. Bilican, T. Tekinay, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Electrical detection of microbeads in dry medium” OEMT 2015, 1st International Conference on Organic Electronic Material Technologies, Elazig, Turkey, 25-28 March 2015

    C. Elbuken, “A Microfluidic device for rapid determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate”, Selectbio Conference on Lab-on-a-chip & Microfluidics, Berlin, Germany, 17-18 March 2015 (poster)

    I. Bilican, M.T. Guler, M. Yuksel, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Easy and cost effective fabrication method of 3D electrodes for impedance based detection” MIDEM, Society for Microelectronics, Electronic Components and Materials, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 6-10 October 2014

    M.T. Guler, S. Agan, C. Elbuken, “Cost effective 3D electrodes for impedance based single particle detection,” EMBL Microfluidics 2014, Heidelberg, Germany, 23 June 2014  (poster)

    P.K. Isgor, M. Marcali, and C. Elbuken, “Capacitive microfluidic droplet content detection,” EMBL Microfluidics 2014, Heidelberg, Germany, 23 June 2014  (poster)

    O. Cakmak, N. Kilinc, E. Ermek, A. Mostafazadeh, C. Elbuken, G. G Yaralioglu and H. Urey. LoC sensor array platform for real-time coagulation measurements, IEEE 27th Conf. on MEMS, 330-333, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jan. 2014

    T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, and C. Ren. Droplet Formation in Microfluidic T-junction Generators Operating in the Transitional Regime, APS Meeting, 34004, Baltimore, MD, USA, March 2013

    O. Cakmak, C. Elbuken, E. Ermek, S. Bulut, Y. Kilinc¸ I. Baris, H. Kavaklı, E. Alaca, H. Urey, “MEMS biosensor for blood plasma viscosity measurements” New Biotechnology vol 29 S, September 2012

    L. Lee, T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, B. Sansom, N. Vo, and C. Ren. Fish and Chips Towards the Development of Portable Water Testing Devices, In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Animal, 46, S41-S42, 2010

    T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, and C. L. Ren. Modeling of T-junction droplet generator in the transition regime, ASME 2010, Vancouver, Canada, Nov. 2010

    C. Elbuken, T. Glawdel, D. Chan and C. L. Ren. Real-time capacitive detection of microdroplets, ASME 2010, Vancouver, Canada, Nov. 2010

    S.M. Shameli, C. Elbuken, J. Ou, C. L. Ren, and J. Pawliszyn. Integration of a PDMS/SU-8/Quartz microfluidic chip with a novel macroporous poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane for membrane isoelectric focusing of proteins using whole-channel imaging detection, ICNMM 2010, Montreal, Canada, Aug. 2010

    T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, C. L. Ren. Modeling of T-junction generator operating in the transitional regime: defining the fitting parameters, 16th USNCTAM, University Park, PA USA, July 2010

    T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, C. L. Ren and L. E. J. Lee. Electro-osmotic pumps with steady long-term performance for cytotoxicology studies, MicroTAS 2009, Jeju, Korea, Nov. 2009

    L.E. Lee, T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken, N. C. Bols and C. L. Ren. Development of microfluidic-based Lab-on-a-Chip devices with fish cell lines as biosensors for aquatic contaminants, Ann.l Main Meeting of the Society of Experimental Biology, Glasgow, UK, June 2009

    C. Elbuken M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. Magnetic levitation as a micromanipulation technique for MEMS, IEEE ICMA 2009, Changchun, Jilin, China, Aug. 2009

    C. Elbuken, L. Gui, C. L. Ren, M. Yavuz and M. B. Khamesee. Design and characterization of a polymeric photo-thermal microgripper for micromanipulation, ASME 2008, Boston, MA, USA, Nov. 2008

    C. Elbuken, L. Gui, C. L. Ren, M. Yavuz and M. B. Khamesee. A Monolithic polymeric microgripper with photo-thermal actuation for biomanipulation, IEEE ICMA 2008, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan, August 2008

    N. Topaloglu, C. Elbuken, P. M. Nieva, M. Yavuz and J. P. Huissoon. Modeling and simulation of a 2-DOF bidirectional electrothermal microactuator, NDE’08, San Diego, USA. Proc. SPIE vol. 6926, 692605, Apr. 2008

    C. Elbuken, M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. Large air-gap magnetic levitation of electrodeposited Co-Ni-Mn-P films, IEEE ICMA 2007, Harbin, China, Aug 2007, pp. 3272–3277

    C. Elbuken, M. Yavuz, M. B. Khamesee, S. Kambe and O. Ishii. Investigation of electrodeposited Co-based films used for magnetic levitation application, MST 2007, Detroit, Michigan USA, Sep. 2007, pp. 195-205

    C. Elbuken, M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. Magnetic levitation of Co-Ni-Mn-P coated silicon samples toward microlevitation, CANCAM’07, Toronto, Canada, June 2007

    C. Elbuken, M. Yavuz and M. B. Khamesee. Structural and mechanical properties of electrodeposited Co-Ni-Mn-P films, CANCAM’07, Toronto, Canada, June 2007

    C. Elbuken, M. B. Khamesee and M. Yavuz. Damping control in magnetic levitation of micro objects, IECON’06, Paris, France, Nov. 2006, pp. 4170-4175

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  • US20160091509A1, Cartridge device with segmented fluidics for assaying coagulation in fluid samples , Katrina Petronilla Di Tullio, Jay Kendall Taylor, John Lewis Emerson Campbell, Caglar Elbuken, Shelia Diane Ball, Noam Saul Lightstone

     PCT/EP2012/070947A method and an apparatus for the detection of a tagging material in fluids, Hakan Urey, Havva Yagci Acar, Caglar Elbuken, Basarbatu Can, Osman Vedat Akgun, Fahri Kerem Uygurmen

    T. Glawdel, C. Elbuken and  C. L. Ren, “ Droplet Generation in Microfluidics,”  Encyclopedia of Microfluidics and Nanofluidics,  2012 [link]. DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-27758-0_1713-1

    Isikascan, M.T. Guler, A. Kalantarifard, M. Asghari, R. Saritas and  C. Elbuken, “LOC platforms in disease detection and diagnostic,”  Biosensors and Nanotechnology: Applications in Health Care Diagnostics, John Wiley & Sons Press, ISBN: 9781119065012 (submitted)
  • New Scientist Magazine, “Getting rid of wobbles at tiny scales” issue 2569, pg 30, 2006

    The Economist, “Look, no wires” Science & Technology“, April 2009

    The Records, “Tiny flying robots to learn surgery”

    CNN Turk, “Manyetik alanda kontrollü uçabilen robot” April 2009 (in Turkish)